Entrepreneurial Competences: Development of an Evaluation Scale





Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Competences, evaluation.


Title: Entrepreneurial competences: development of an evaluation scale

Objective: The article aimed to present the process of elaboration and validation of a scale that evaluates the entrepreneurial competences developed in undergraduate entrepreneurship courses.

Method: To elaborate and validate the scale, documentary analysis, focus groups, validation by judges, semantic validation and empirical validation with 182 respondents were performed.

Originality / Relevance: The article presents an entrepreneurial competences scale developed specifically to assess the competences of undergraduate entrepreneurship courses, as opposed to existing scales that are focused on business owners, not representing the reality of students.

Results: The validated scale has 36 items, divided into 5 factors. Factor 1 was named “competences to build the business model”. Factor 2 was named “selling and risk taking competences”. Factor 3 was named “opportunity identification competences”. Factor 4 was named “competences to accept mistakes”. Finally, factor 5 was named “teamwork competences”.

Theoretical / methodological contributions: The main contribution proposed by the article is the presentation of a scale capable of measuring entrepreneurial competences developed by students of entrepreneurship courses or subjects, since the existing scales are focused on business owners. The scale can be replicated for assessment of other entrepreneurship courses and its construction and validation process can be replicated. 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Luciana Padovez Cualheta, Universidade de Brasília – UnB, Brasília, (Brasil).

Doutora pela Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília, (Brasil). Professora na Sempreende.

Gardenia Abbad, Universidade de Brasília – UnB, Brasília, (Brasil).

Doutora pela Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília, (Brasil). Professora pela Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília.

Cristiane Faiad, Universidade de Brasília – UnB, Brasília, (Brasil).

Doutora pela Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília, (Brasil). Professora pela Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brasília.

Candido Borges Junior, Universidade Federal de Goiás – UFG, Goiás, (Brasil).

Doutor pela Escola de negócios HEC Montreal, (Canadá). Professor pela Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG, Goiás. 


Bardin, L. (1989). Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70.

Bauman, A., & Lucy, C. (in press). Enhancing entrepreneurial education: Developing competencies for success. The International Journal of Management Education.

Bird, B. (1995). Toward a theory of entrepreneurial competency. Advances in Entrepreneurship Firm Emergence and Growth, v. 2, pp. 51-72.

Blank, S., & Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner´s manual: the step-by-step guide for building a great company. Pescadero, CA: K&S Ranch Publishing.

Chandler, G. N., & Jansen, E. (1992). The founder’s self-assessed competence and venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, v. 7, pp. 223-236.

Duval-Couetil, N. (2013). Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programs: Challenges and Approaches. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 394-409. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12024

Fayolle, A. (2013). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, v. 25, n. 7-8, pp. 672-701.

Fayolle, A. (2018). A Research Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Fiet, J. O. (2000). The theoretical side of teaching entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 1-24. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00041-5

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. 7. ed. Prentice Hall.

Henry, C., Hill, F. & Leitch, C. (2005). Entrepreneurship education and training: can entrepreneurship be taught? Part I. Education + Training, 47(2), 98-111. doi: 10.1108/00400910510586524

Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Education: Development, Trends and Challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 577-598. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00099.x

Kyndt, E., & Baert, H. (2015). Entrepreneurial competencies: Assessment and predictive value for entrepreneurship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 90, pp. 13-25

Lans, T., Hulsink, W., Baert, H., & Mulder, M. (2008). ERIM Report Series Research in Management, ERS-2008-028-ORG. Available on: http://www.erim.eur.nl

Man, T. W. Y. (2012). Developing a behaviour-centred model of entrepreneurial learning. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, v. 19, n. 3, pp. 549-566.

Man, T. W. Y., Lau, T., & Chan, K. F. (2002). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, v. 17, pp. 123-142.

Man, T. W. Y., Lau, T., & Snape, E. (2008). Entrepreneurial Competencies and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Investigation through a Framework of Competitiveness. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 257-276.

Martin, B. C., McNally, J. J., & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: a meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, v. 28, pp. 211-224.

Mitchelmore, S., & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: a literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 91-111.

Morris, M. H., Webb, J. W., Fu, J., & Singhal, S. (2013). A Competency-Based Perspective on Entrepreneurs Education: Conceptual and Empirical Insights. Journal of Small Business Management, v. 51, n. 3, pp. 352-369.

Mwasalwiba, E. S. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: a review of its objectives, teaching methods, and impact indicators. Education + Training, v. 52, n. 1, pp. 20-47.

Nabi, G., Linan, F., Fayolle, A., Krueger, N., & Wamsley, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: a systematic review and research agenda. Academy of Management Learning & Education, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 277-299.

Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship Education: Known Worlds and New Frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, v. 49, n. 1, pp. 55-70.

Neck, H.M., Greene, P. G., & Brush, C. G. (2014). Teaching Entrepreneurship: a Pratice-Based Approach. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wliey & Sons, Inc.

Ployart, R. E. & Vanderberg, R. J. (2010). Longitudinal research: The theory, design, and analysis of change. Journal of Management, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 94-120.

Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: how today’s entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. New York, NY: Crown Publishing.

Rocha, E. L. C., & Freitas, A. A. F. (2014). Avaliação do Ensino de Empreendedorismo entre Estudantes Universitários por meio do Perfil Empreendedor. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, v. 18, n. 4, pp. 465-486.

Sá, C. M., & Kretz, A. J. (2015). The Entrepreneurship Movement and the University. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Salusse, M. A. Y., & Andreassi, T. (2016). O Ensino de Empreendedorismo com Fundamento na Teoria Effectuation. Revista de Administração Comtemporânea, v. 20, n. 3, pp. 305-327.

Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001a). Causation and effectuation: toward a theorial shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contigency. Academy of Management Review, v. 26, n. 2, pp. 243-263.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. New York, NY: Pearson.



How to Cite

Cualheta, L. P., Abbad, G., Faiad, C., & Borges Junior, C. (2020). Entrepreneurial Competences: Development of an Evaluation Scale. REGEPE Entrepreneurship and Small Business Journal, 9(2), 158–180. https://doi.org/10.14211/regepe.v9i2.1621



Research Articles